История распространения английского языка в мире
I. The History of the expansion of the English language 5
1.1 A brief history of the English language 5
1.2 Origins of English as global language 7
1.3 The role of English today 15
II. The varieties of English and importance of their introduction to the pupils 17
2.1 The difference between British and American English 17
2.2 Approbation and its interpretation 21
APPLICATION 1 31
Today more and more disputes are caused by the enormous spread of the English language throughout the world. Some scholars claim that it has already become the first global language. And this statement isn’t far from truth. In this era of consolidation and trying to unify various aspects of life, it will not be long before English can be made as a single language of the world like the single currency and the union of various nations. The level of sentimental attachment or genuine liking for English falls far short of the level of necessity-based desire to learn it. In many countries, local authorities are engaged in language planning to foster the positive image of the national language for many functions for all people, and simultaneously to foster the spread of English in its function – a difficult set of co-occurring goals. Thus, all these countries are gradually becoming bilingual.
I. The History of the expansion of the English language
1.1 A brief history of the English language
Speaking of the history of the expansion of the English language in the world, it won’t be needless to mention the general historical outfit of the language itself.
English is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken today. The Indo-European family includes several major branches: Latin and the modern Romance languages (French etc.); the Germanic languages (English, German, Swedish etc.); the Indo-Iranian languages (Hindi, Urdu, Sanskrit etc.); the Slavic languages (Russian, Polish, Czech etc.); the Baltic languages of Latvian and Lithuanian; the Celtic languages (Welsh, Irish Gaelic etc.); Greek.
It's never easy to pinpoint exactly when a specific language began, but in the case of English general opinion is the history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England and English are derived. [1, p. 32]
1.2 Origins of English as global language
The first significant step in the progress of English towards its status as a global language took place at the end of the sixteenth century. At that time, the number of mother-tongue English speakers in the world is thought to have been between 5 and 7 million, almost all of them living in the British Isles. “Between the end of the reign of Elizabeth I (1603) and the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth II (1952), this figure increased almost fiftyfold, to some 250 million, the vast majority living outside the British Isles... And the first fresh dimension being added to the history of the language is North America.” [4, p.55]
The first expedition from England to the New World was commissioned by Walter Raleigh in 1584, and proved to be a failure. A group of explorers landed near Roanoke Island, in what is now North Carolina, and established a small settlement. Conflict with the native people followed, and it proved necessary for a ship to return to England for help and supplies. By the time these arrived, in 1590, none of the original group of settlers could be found.
1.3 The role of English today
Today English is becoming the first world’s universal language. It is the mother tongue of 500 million of people in 12 countries of the world. It is, of course, less than about 900 million of people speaking Mandarin. But English is thought to be second language of 600 million of people. About 200 million of people know the English language to some extent. It has official and semi-official status in 62 countries of the world. No doubts that English is much more geographically spread and more universal than Chinese. And the rate of the development of its use is incredible.
Thus, today about 1,5 billion of people that speak English. It is the most taught language, but what is more wonderful, it doesn’t replace all the other languages but complement them. [10, p. 17]
II. The varieties of English and importance of their introduction to the pupils
2.1 The difference between British and American English
It goes without saying that American English (variously abbreviated AmE, AE, AmEng and USEng) is the most wide-spread variation of the English language. Approximately two-thirds of native speakers of English live in the United States and consequently speak American English. However British English (BrE) was a kind of base, original source of American English. Generally, it is agreed that no one version is "correct" however, there are certainly preferences in use. And now we will try to point out the principal differences between these two varieties of English. [5, p. 65]
- English and American English Spelling
Here is the table demonstrating the principal differences in spelling between English and American English:
2.2 Approbation and its interpretation
This part of the work consists of the scenarios of two model lessons of the English language that were conducted with the pupils of the seventh grade and the interpretation of their results. The aim of the approbation is to prove the importance of the introduction of the differences between British English and American English to the pupils.
Topic of the first lesson is “Discover American English”.
Students’ level of the English language proficiency is intermediate.
Objectives of the lesson:
English is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. It has a very rich history. The English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. In general, its history is divided into three periods: Old English (450-1100 AD), Middle English (1100-1500), and Modern English (1500-present days).
It will be true to say that the history of the English language expansion began approximately in the Era of Modern English. It was closely connected mainly with the complex processes of exploration, colonization and overseas trade of the British Empire.