Сравнительная характеристика современных методик обучения иностранному языку
1 Comparative Teaching Methodologies 8
1.1 Grammar Translation Method 11
1.2 Direct Method 11
1.3 Audio-Lingual Method 12
1.4 Silent Way 13
1.5 Total Physical Response (TPR) 14
1.6 Community Language Learning (CLL) 14
1.7 Suggestopedia (Suggestology) 15
1.8 Communicative Approach 16
1.9 Natural Approach 17
1.10 Emotional-semantic method 18
2 Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching 22
2.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language 22
2.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language 25
2.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies 25
2.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method 26
2.2.3 Using project methods in teaching a foreign language 27
2.2.4 The method of debates 28
2.2.5 Games 29
2.2.6 Role plays as a method of teaching 30
2.3 Methodological principles of modern methods of teaching 32
2.4 Practical aspect of ways of teaching 39
3 Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching English 50
3.1 Features of techniques 50
3.1.1 Communicative method 50
3.1.2 Project methodology 51
3.1.3 Intensive method 52
3.1.4 Activity Based method 53
3.2 Similarities of methods 53
3.3 Positive and negative aspects of techniques 55
Language teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this process was the emergence of the concept of methods of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching—the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning—is a powerful one, and the quest for better methods preoccupied teachers and applied linguists throughout the 20th century. Howatt (1984) documents the history of changes in language teaching throughout history, up through the Direct Method in the 20th century. One of the most lasting legacies of the Direct Method has been the notion of method itself.
Methodology in language teaching has been characterized in a variety of ways. A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology links theory and practice. Within methodology a distinction is often made between methods and approaches, in which methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices, and approaches are language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom. This distinction is probably best seen as a continuum ranging from highly prescribed methods to loosely described approaches.
1 Comparative Teaching Methodologies
At the present time when there are radical changes in teaching, when radically revised the content and teaching methods appropriate it is high time to revisit the history of the methods of teaching foreign languages and the main trends of its development.
Now no one doubts that the method of language teaching is a science. The very first definition of methodology was given by E.M. Ryt in 1930, who wrote that the methodology of teaching foreign languages is a practical application of comparative linguistics. A similar position had A.V. Scherba.
The emergence of views on the methodology as applied linguistics, was due to the fact that the method 30-s not enough to identify the specificity of a foreign language as a subject, and there was no developed system of research methods, without which there can be no true science.
1.1 Grammar Translation Method
Latin and Ancient Greek are known as «dead languages», based on the fact that people no longer speak them for the purpose of interactive communication. Yet they are still acknowledged as important languages to learn (especially Latin) for the purpose of gaining access to classical literature, and up until fairly recently, for the kinds of grammar training that led to the «mental dexterity» considered so important in any higher education study stream.
Latin has been studied for centuries, with the prime objectives of learning how to read classical Latin texts, understanding the fundamentals of grammar and translation, and gaining insights into some important foreign influences Latin has had on the development of other European languages. The method used to teach it overwhelmingly bore those objectives in mind, and came to be known (appropriately!) as the Classical Method. It is now more commonly known in Foreign Language Teaching circles as the Grammar Translation Method.
1.2 Direct Method
Towards the end of the late 1800s, a revolution in language teaching philosophy took place that is seen by many as the «dawn» of modern foreign language teaching. Teachers, frustrated by the limits of the Grammar Translation Method in terms of its inability to create «communicative» competence in students, began to experiment with new ways of teaching language. Basically, teachers began attempting to teach foreign languages in a way that was more similar to first language acquisition.
1.3 Audio-Lingual Method
The next «revolution» in terms of language teaching methodology coincided with World War II, when America became aware that it needed people to learn foreign languages very quickly as part of its overall military operations. The «Army Method» was suddenly developed to build communicative competence in translators through very intensive language courses focusing on aural/oral skills. This in combination with some new ideas about language learning coming from the disciplines of descriptive linguistics and behavioral psychology went on to become what is known as the Audio-lingual Method (ALM).
1.4 Silent Way
In addition to «affective» theories relative to language learning, another challenge to the Audio-lingual Method was under way already in the sixties in the form of the «Cognitive Code» and an educational trend known as «Discovery Learning.» These concepts most directly challenged the idea that language learning was all about mimicry and good «habit-formation.» An emphasis on human cognition in language learning addressed issues such as learners being more responsible for their own learning - formulating independent hypotheses about the «rules» of the target language and testing those hypotheses by applying them and realizing errors. When students create their own sets of meaningful language rules and concepts and then test them out, they are clearly learning through a discovery/exploratory method that is very different from rote-learning. This appears to have much more in common with the way people learn their native language from a very early age, and can account for the way children come out with new language forms and combinations that they have never heard before. The underlying principles here are that learners become increasingly autonomous in, active with and responsible for the learning process in which they are engaged.
1.5 Total Physical Response (TPR)
Already in the late 1800s, a French teacher of Latin by the name of Francois Gouin was hard at work devising a method of language teaching that capitalized on the way children naturally learn their first language, through the transformation of perceptions into conceptions and then the expression of those conceptions using language. His approach became known as the Series Method, involving direct conceptual teaching of language using «series» of inter-connected sentences that are simple and easy to perceive, because the language being used can be directly related to whatever the speaker is doing at the immediate time of utterance (i.e., one's actions and language match each other). His thinking was well ahead of his time, and the Series Method became swamped in the enthusiasm surrounding the other new approach at the time in the form of the Direct Method.
1.6 Community Language Learning (CLL)
In the early seventies, Charles Curran developed a new education model he called «Counseling-Learning». This was essentially an example of an innovative model that primarily considered «affective» factors as paramount in the learning process. Drawing on Carl Rogers' view that learners were to be considered not as a «class», but as a «group», Curran's philosophy dictated that students were to be thought of as «clients» - their needs being addressed by a «counselor» in the form of the teacher. Brown (1994:59), in commenting on this approach also notes that «In order for any learning to take place ... what is first needed is for the members to interact in an interpersonal relationship in which students and teacher join together to facilitate learning in a context of valuing and prizing each individual in the group.» Curran was best known for his extensive studies on adult learning, and some of the issues he tried to address were the «threatening» nature of a new learning situation to many adult learners and the anxiety created when students feared making «fools» of themselves. Curran believed that the counseling-learning model would help lower the instinctive defenses adult learners throw up, that the anxiety caused by the educational context could be decreased through the support of an interactive «community» of fellow learners. Another important goal was for the teacher to be perceived as an empathetic helping agent in the learning process, not a threat.
1.7 Suggestopedia (Suggestology)
In the late 70s, a Bulgarian psychologist by the name of Georgi Lozanov introduced the contention that students naturally set up psychological barriers to learning - based on fears that they will be unable to perform and are limited in terms of their ability to learn. Lozanov believed that learners may have been using only 5 to 10 percent of their mental capacity, and that the brain could process and retain much more material if given «optimal» conditions for learning. Based on psychological research on extrasensory perception, Lozanov began to develop a language learning method that focused on «desuggestion» of the limitations learners think they have, and providing the sort of relaxed state of mind that would facilitate the retention of material to its maximum potential. This method became known as «Suggestopedia» - the name reflecting the application of the power of «suggestion» to the field of pedagogy.
1.8 Communicative Approach
All the «methods» described so far are symbolic of the progress foreign language teaching ideology underwent in the last century. These were methods that came and went, influenced or gave birth to new methods - in a cycle that could only be described as «competition between rival methods» or «passing fads» in the methodological theory underlying foreign language teaching. Finally, by the mid-eighties or so, the industry was maturing in its growth and moving towards the concept of a broad «approach» to language teaching that encompassed various methods, motivations for learning English, types of teachers and the needs of individual classrooms and students themselves. It would be fair to say that if there is any one «umbrella» approach to language teaching that has become the accepted «norm» in this field, it would have to be the Communicative Language Teaching Approach. This is also known as CLT.
1.9 Natural Approach
Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the «Natural Approach» in the early eighties (Krashen and Terrell, 1983), based on Krashen's theories about second language acquisition. The approach shared a lot in common with Asher's Total Physical Response method in terms of advocating the need for a «silent phase», waiting for spoken production to «emerge» of its own accord, and emphasizing the need to make learners as relaxed as possible during the learning process. Some important underlying principles are that there should be a lot of language «acquisition» as opposed to language «processing», and there needs to be a considerable amount of «comprehensible input» from the teacher. Meaning is considered as the essence of language and vocabulary (not grammar) is the heart of language.
1.10 Emotional-semantic method
At the root of emotional and meaningful method of learning foreign languages is Bulgarian psychiatrist Losanov, worked with patients at their own method of psychological correction. He created the so-called “Interest groups” and learning a foreign language was medical instrument. In Moscow in 2-language schools, method of Lozanov is used: “System-3” and “School of Kitaygorodskaya”. Naturally, the methods of Schechter Igor and Galina Kitaygorodskaya also differ from the system of Lozanov of how their students from patients of Bulgarian doctor.
School of Kitaygorodskaya is working on the method of the same name for 25 years, built on combination Lozanov’ developments in fundamental courses, and takes both adults and children.
2 Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching
2.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language
In the given theoretical part of work it is necessary to pay attention on those basic statements in which the most essential parts of activity are reflected and generalized. That means the methodical principles underlying teaching.
Principles of teaching are understood as starting statements which determine the purposes, the contents, methods and the organization of teaching and are shown in interrelation and inter-conditionality. In our case principles are used to define strategy and tactics of teaching English language at all stages practically in each point of educational process.
As far as the result of teaching of pupils foreign language is formation their skills of using language as means of intercourse, the leading principle is the principle of a communicative orientation.
Its main function is in creation of all conditions of communications: motives, purposes and problems of intercourse. The communicative orientation defines selection and the organization of language material, its situational conditionality, communicative value both speech and training exercises, communicative formulation of educational problems, organization and structure of the lesson. This principle assumes creation of conditions for speaking and intellectual activity of pupils during each moment of teaching [1;22-23].
2.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language
2.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies
Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching
One of the primary goals of using constructivist teaching is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences.
According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are as follows:
* the learners are actively involved
* the environment is democratic
* the activities are interactive and student-centered
* the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous.
2.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method
The “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” — also known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or the “communicative approach” — emphasizes learning a language through genuine communication. Learning a new language is easier and more enjoyable when it is truly meaningful.
Communicative teaching is based on the work of sociolinguists who theorized that an effective knowledge of a language is more than merely knowing vocabulary and rules of grammar and pronunciation. Learners need to be able to use the language appropriately in any business or social context.
2.2.3 Using project methods in teaching a foreign language
In the European languages the word «project» is borrowed from Latin: the participle 'projectus' means «thrown out forward «, «striking one's eye». With reference to a lesson of foreign language, the project is specially organized by the teacher and independently carried out by pupils complex of the actions, finished with creation of a creative product. A method of projects, thus, is the set of educational and cognitive modes which allow to solve this or that problem as a result of independent actions of children with obligatory presentation of results.
Let's result some examples how to achieve at once at the lesson with the help of project methods the several purposes - to expand children's vocabulary, to fix the investigated lexical and grammatical material, to create at the lesson an atmosphere of a holiday and to decorate a cabinet of foreign language with colorful works of children.
2.2.4 The method of debates
It allows forming also the conscious attitude to consideration of problems, activity in its discussion, speech culture, an orientation on revealing of the reasons of arising problems and installation on their decision further. Here the principle of formation of critical thinking in pupils is realized. Language, thus, is simultaneously both the purpose and means of teaching. The method of debates helps pupils not only to seize all four kinds of speech activity, but to means of a language situation on a background of a problem in social and cultural sphere to find out the reasons of the arisen situations and to try even to solve them. Interest to the independent decision of a problem is the stimulus, driving force of process of knowledge.
The advantages of using games. Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. «Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely» (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, «add diversion to the regular classroom activities,» break the ice, «[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas». In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus ). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.
2.2.6 Role plays as a method of teaching
Scholars suggest different steps and various successions in applying role play in teaching. Based on the empirical evidence, we suggest our step-by-step guide to making a successful role play.
Step 1 - A Situation for a Role Play
To begin with, choose a situation for a role play, keeping in mind students' needs and interests (Livingstone, 1983). Teachers should select role plays that will give the students an opportunity to practice what they have learned. At the same time, we need a role play that interests the students. One way to make sure your role play is interesting is to let the students choose the situation themselves. They might either suggest themes that intrigue them or select a topic from a list of given situations. To find a situation for a role play, write down situations you encounter in your own life, or read a book or watch a movie, because their scenes can provide many different role play situations. You might make up an effective role play based on cultural differences.
2.3 Methodological principles of modern methods of teaching
During the development of foreign language teaching methods, successive crises of the deficit and “overproduction” of ideas it was necessary for the formation of a new methodological direction. For example, the transition to communicative teaching carried out in apparent lack of meaningful and truly new ideas. The crisis has brought to life an active methodological and methodical search, which contributed to the development of modern teaching concepts of language teaching.
In order to understand what the basis of modern methods of teaching English is, it is necessary to consider in detail methodological principles which underlie these techniques.
2.4 Practical aspect of ways of teaching
In a theoretical part of this course paper it was spoken about various effective ways of teaching a foreign language. But if teacher wants effectively put them into practice, it is necessary to know how to use these methods at each separate lesson. Therefore, in a practical part of the given course paper the examples of various exercises will be shown for each of the methods, which were listed in a theoretical part. The teacher can adapt and make variations of them for his lessons.
3 Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching English
3.1 Features of techniques
As mentioned earlier, many modern techniques are communicatively-oriented, and one of their most important aim is to teach communication and ownership of speech means. Each of the techniques uses different tools, methods and principles. That is, each technique has distinctive specific features.
3.1.1 Communicative method
The very first specific feature of the communicative method is that the purpose of education is not mastery of a foreign language, but “foreign language culture”, which includes cognitive, educational, developmental and educational aspect. These aspects include the introduction and study of not only the language and grammar, but also its culture, its relationship with the native culture, as well as the failure of a foreign language, its nature, characteristics, similarities and differences with their own language. They also include the satisfaction of personal cognitive interests’ trainee in any of its activities. The latter provides an additional motivation to study a foreign language by students, who is not interested.
3.1.2 Project methodology
The effectiveness of the project techniques is provided to a greater extent by the intellectual and emotional richness of the education topics. Also we should note their gradual complication. But the distinctive feature is the fact of their concrete. From the outset of training the trainees are expected to participate in meaningful and complex communication, without simplification and primitivism.
The other distinguishing feature of the project methodology is a particular form of communicative and cognitive organization of students in draft form. That, indeed, appeared the name of the method.
3.1.3 Intensive method
We now turn to the intensive method and consider its specificity. This method is based on the psychological term of “suggestion”. This is the first specific feature of intensive techniques. The use of suggestion can pass or shoot various types of psychological barriers in the trainees the following way. The teacher conducts classes in the light of psychological factors, emotional impact, using the logical form of training. It is also used in the classroom various art forms (music, painting, elements of the theater) to the emotional impact on students.
However suggestopedia training involves a concentration of training hours. At the senior stages, for example, it is advisable to devote six hours a week through the school component of the curriculum; they should be divided into three, two hours each. If necessary, the number of hours can be reduced to three.
3.1.4 Activity Based method
What are specific features for Activity Based Methods of teaching English? It should be noted that there are quite a lot of such learning tools specific to the Activity Based methods.
In the beginning, we note that the creators of this technique believe that we should teach separately design skills and the ability to work with content following information. In order to ensure a conscious mastery of linguistic tools and training in design, they must form before there will be a learning to work with content. From this follows another specific feature of this method.
In Activity Based method is a separation between the tentative mastery of language means and subsequent mastery of communication on the basis of existing knowledge, abilities, skills, use of language.
3.2 Similarities of methods
The objective of learning English is formulated as follows now: teach students to communicate in English. But when posed in this way it becomes a goal in itself. The purpose of education is much broader than the acquisition of certain skills and abilities, and opportunities for the subject “English” is much broader. Therefore, the purpose of teaching English language at present can be summarized as follows: to teach students not only participate in communication in English, but also actively participate in the development of the individual student.
3.3 Positive and negative aspects of techniques
To determine how well each of the described methods, we will try to highlight and explore the pros and cons of each.
The communicative method has several positive aspects that should be actively used to work with him.
First and foremost, this is the purpose of training, which is not just mastering a foreign language, and learning a foreign language culture. This is achieved by subordinating and interrelatedness of all aspects of training. Following such installation, the teacher involves in the formation of the individual student, which is certainly a positive side.